Folia Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis

Archiv 2008: Volume I

Urban, J. Výskyt, bionomie a škodlivost vrbové biologické formy bázlivce vrbového –⁠ Lochmaea Caprea (L.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2007, Vol. I, No. 1. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-166-1

The paper deals with the occurrence, bionomics and harmfulness of the willow biological form of Lochmaea caprea (Linnaeus, 1758) in Moravia. Main investigations were carried out in advance growth and young-growth stands of Salix caprea in the Polnička Forest District, the area of Žďár (altitude 650 m) in 1988 and 1989 and in the Bílovice nad Svitavou Forest District, the area of Brno (altitude 340 m) in 2005 and 2006. Last year's imagoes occur mainly on S. caprea, viz. from the beginning of May (in colder regions from mid-May) until mid-July (in colder regions until the end of July). Males live in captivity 57 (females 50) days and damage 14.0 (females 46.0) cm2 leaves of S. caprea. After 5 to 8 days of feeding, imagoes copulate for the first time. During the 3 to 7-week period of reproduction, they copulate daily on average 3.3 times for a period of 16 minutes. On S. caprea, females lay on average 654 eggs in 33 partial clutches at circa 15 eggs and then die 6.5 day after oviposition. In the course of 11 to 21 days of embryonal development, the volume of eggs increases 2.06 times. On S. caprea, larvae damage 4.9 cm2 leaves during 15 days, on S. viminalis, 4.2 cm2 during 13 days and on S. fragilis, 5.3 cm2 during 18 days. The development in soil takes 15 days. The chrysomelid development from oviposition to the occurrence of this year's imagoes on trees takes 41 days. Maturation feeding of this year's imagoes occurs from the beginning of August (at colder locations from the 2nd decade of August) to mid-October (at colder locations to the end of October). Males damage 21.8 (females 27.4) cm2 leaves of S. caprea during 2 to 3 weeks. The chrysomelid development is univoltine (in the laboratory bi- to tetravoltine). In the course of 7.5-month hibernation and during the spring colonization of trees, weather is the main regulator. Medina collaris (Fall.) (Tachinidae) is an important parasitoid whereas Microctonus deceptor (Wesm.) (Braconidae) is unimportant.

Keywords: Lochmaea caprea; Lochmaea capreae; occurrence; host tree species; development; regulation factors; harmfulness; protection

Jůzl, M., Zrůst, J., Hlušek, J.: Hazardous substances in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) and potato-tuber products. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2008, Vol. I, No. 2. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-167-8

This publication is concerned with hazardous substances in potato plants and potato-tuber products. In the present publication the authors focused on nitrates, nitrites, nitrosamines, acrylamide, steroid glycoalcaloids, calystegines and foreign substances. The give a description of these substances, brief history, distribution in the plant, factors affecting their accumulation and content, namely in the tubers and potato products; including the effect of cooking and processing on their content, effects on people and animals and last but not least any possibilities, if known, of the influence of the farmer, breeder, trader, producer and consumer. The nitrate content in potato tubers is the result of plant metabolism as a response to the environment. However since potatoes are an essential component of human nutrition they should contain as little nitrates as possible. A certain danger connected with the toxic effect of acrylamide was discovered when studying animals and this may present a potential health hazard also for humans. For reasons of prevention all efforts should be focused on the reduction of its level in food. Potato-based food products offer a wide range of possibilities, beginning with the production of the raw material (selection of varieties, optimisation of growing and storage) and ending with thermal processing of the potato tubers in the kitchen. Potato glycoalkaloids may cause a number of digestive troubles and indigestion. The concentration of glycoalkaloids in potato products is dependent on their content in the original raw material. The way the potatoes are peeled and further processed are crucial for the content of glycoalkaloids in the tubers because this considerably reduces their content. However glycoalkaloids are very stable in terms of heat. Cooking, steaming, baking or heating in a microwave oven do not decompose them. In the case of calystegines, which show strong glycosidase activity, we suspect that they are toxic for a number of plants although so far we have no evidence. The level of calystegines was seen to increase in wounded tissues. However in contrast to glycoalkaloids the concentration of calystegines is higher in tubers than in the aboveground parts.
Also heavy metals are considered to be hazardous. Cadmium, lead, mercury, zinc, nickel, copper, chromium, arsenic, molybdenum, cobalt and tin are the most dangerous heavy metals; but also vanadium, beryllium and thorium, and in high concentrations also selenium, are potentially toxic elements. It was discovered that virtually all the foreign elements accumulated in the tuber skin. Peeling, frying and cooking decrease the concentrations. Basing on controls we can say that the overall standard of sales of market potatoes is gradually improving. In the past years no batch of market potatoes was evaluated by the State Agricultural and Food Inspection as unsatisfactory because the permitted limit of foreign substances had been exceeded.

Keywords: potatoes; potato tuber products; nitrates; acrylamide; steroid glycoalkaloids; calystegines; foreign substances

Mařík, R.: Oscillation theory of partial differential equations with p-Laplacian. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2008, Vol. I, No. 3.  ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-215-6

This book is devoted to the study of a partial differential equation with p-Laplacian and nonlinearity of Emden-Fowler type. The equations with p-Laplacian arise in several problem in mathematical physics, such as glaciology, the study of non--Newtonian fluids and slow diffusion problems. This book collects author's results in the oscillation theory of partial differentaial equations and gives an unified approach to these results. While most papers devoted to the oscillain theory of PDE's are based on an idea to replace a partial differential equation by its radially symmetric majorant and solve the problem in the scope of theory of ordinary differential equations, the results in this book are somewhat different and more general. In the presented results we try to take into consideration some effects which may appear for partial equations, like non-radial criteria and oscillation on general domains. The book consists of five chapters. In the first chapter we introduce the basic form of the half-linear PDE with p-Laplacian, explain some basic facts and introduce the notation common for all chapters. Three following chapters are devoted to three different equations (starting from the simplest equation to more general) and the last chapter contains shorter investigations on other related differential equations and inequalities. Each chapter is a self-contained part of text. For this reason the numbering of equations and theorems is also independent in each chapter and any number of theorem or equation refers to the theorem or equation in actual chapter (unless stated explicitly otherwise). An absolute majority of the presented results have been obtained with support of the Czech Grant Agency. The last results concerning oscillation of the partial differential equation in the scope of the oscillation theory for ordinary differential equations as well as the preparation of this book were supported by the Grant 201/07/0145 of the Czech Grant Agency.

Keywords: partial differential equation, second order differential equation, p-Laplacian, oscillation theory

Žalud, Z. et al.: Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of controlled ecosystems and their adaptability to climate change -- indicators of ecosystem services. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2008, Vol. I, No. 4. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-221-7

The presented publication deals with a multidisciplinary research of managed ecosystems and it is oriented to biological and technological aspects of their sustainable utilization. The monograph is acknowledged to the research project No.: MSM6215648905 "Biological and Technological Aspects of Sustainability of Controlled Ecosystems and Their Adaptability to Climate Change" supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. Its main idea should contribute to the optimization of a managed ecosystems usage in such a way their productive capacity will be preserved, and maintained in a mutual harmony with all other services these systems provide. Regarding the fact that a biological and physical framework, in what these ecosystems are developing, is significantly modified by the global climate change, it is necessary to consider and carry out the research of those adaptive measures that assure the sustainability in the course of this life-influencing change. The core of the research is accomplished for managed agricultural ecosystems: arable land, grassland, water resources and energy-producing woody species (short rotation coppice). The extent of provided services (i.e. benefits that people can obtain from ecosystems) will be evaluated in all four ecosystems through indicators enabling their quantification. Services involve a provision of goods (e.g. food, fresh water, wood, fuel), regulatory functions (e.g. climate, disease, water) and cultural roles (e.g. educational, recreational) that influence people directly and their supporting services (e.g. nutrient cycling, soil formation, primary production) which are indispensable for the maintenance of all other services. The sustainability of ecosystems and their services can be determined by indicators used by evaluating their quality and their development. The selected main indicators and a methodology of their determination involved in the research are: crop and forage yields and their stability, crop and forage production quality, energy balance, nutrients balance, humus content and quality, organic matter balance, soil structure, soil erosion, soil respiration, soil pH, environmental load by pesticides, system heterogeneity -- shares of ecological infrastructure, phytomass quality, wood bio¬ma¬ss yield and its stability, water ecosystems primary productive potential, fish production, eutrophication degree, water regime, plant and animal species biodiversity, water basic physical and chemical properties, specific pollutants residues content in water, organic substances content in water, biogenic elements content in water, drought indices, typical days numbers, frost occurrence, hot waves, vegetation seasons length, sowing and harvesting days number, water balance, snow cover length.
These indicators are divided and aggregated into three groups -- (i) general (applicable in all ecosystems), (ii) specific (respecting differences existing among selected ecosystems) and (iii) climatic (selected for the research of adaptive measures resulting from climatic changes). The presented methodology of an indicators determination involves analytical studies on physical, chemical and biological processes running in ecosystems. The main aim of the book is a characterization, description and elaboration of the methodology of work with selected indicators and their sets. A significant part of the study represents a determination of an individual indicator and/or their sets in studied ecosystems under the progress of the global climate change through the scenarios of the climate change based on Global Circulation Models. Borders of the sustainability for studied ecosystems and their services provided respectively are presented for periods up to the end of the 21st century.

Keywords: arable land; climate change; ecosystem services; grassland; short rotation coppice; sustainability indicator; water resources

ŠEBÁNEK, J.: Physiology of vegetative propagation of woody species. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2008, Vol. I, No. 5. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-238-5

Regeneration enabling to restore disturbed plant integrity represents an important part of studies on experimental morphology and hormonology of plants. Its results can be used when improving practical methods of vegetative plant propagation. The presented monograph summarises the scientific knowledge. Attention is paid above all to the role of phytohormones in the pro¬cess of rooting of stem cuttings of woody species. A positive relationship to the regeneration of adventitious roots can be observed above all in case of endogenous auxins and inhibitors while a negative one in case of gibberellins. This means that, in individual species and/or cultivars, an increasing ratio between contents of endogenous auxins to gibberellins enables a successful rooting of their cuttings. In stem cuttings, the polar transport of auxin from the apical part of the stem to its base results in an increase in its content in stem bases and a decrease in the apex. This means that the application of auxin-like regulatory substances promotes formation of adventitious roots and sup¬pres¬ses formation of adventitious buds. Their regeneration can be therefore promoted by substances of an "anti-auxin" nature but especially by cytokinins. This monograph also analyses and eva¬lua¬tes the role of ethylene, synthetic growth regulators, vitamins and some other compounds in stem rooting processes. It presents also a list of individual species of woody plants together with data about recommended concentrations and methods of application of growth regulators used for rooting of stem cuttings. The rooting itself is influenced not only by temperature, humidity and other exogenous factors but also by a number of factors of endogenous nature. Of them, the most important are the age and the endogenous dormancy of maternal plants. Finally, the differences between rooting of stems originating from basal and apical parts of the stem (i.e. related to topophysis) are also discussed. At the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, the scientific school of experimental plant morphology has used and continues to use not only woody species when studying phytohormonal principles of plant regeneration but also some model herb species (e.g. Bryophyllum crenatum, Pisum sativum etc.). The obtained results are also presented in this monograph. Vegetative propagation of woody species can be performed also by means of transplantation (i.e. grafting and budding) and layering. These methods of vegetative propagation of woody species are evaluated from the viewpoint of the role of phytohormones and with regard to (until now not too much explored) methods of application of growth regulators.

Keywords: phytohormonal principles of regeneration, growth regulators and rooting of woody species cuttings, rejuvenilisation, formation of adventitious roots and buds, grafting and budding, layering