Folia Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis

Archiv 2011: Volume IV


Tesařová, D.: Ecological finished surfaces. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2011, Vol. IV, No. 1. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-480-8

The work interested in environmental finishes for wood surface finishing by the waterborne, dispersed, polyurethane, two component, transparent and pigmented coatings and waterborne, dispersed, polyurethane UV cured paints was performed. The developing of the coating materials is coming from the reached results of research two-components of two component, transparent and pigmented coatings and waterborne, dispersed, polyurethane UV cured paints based on aromatic aliphatic polyurethanes. These finishing materials are characterized by fast drying and curing of coating films of waterborne dispersion of polyurethane two-component coatings with good adhesion to the substrate, which is immediately after curing hard and flexible at the same time. Also the other physic-mechanical properties of coating films, including the sliding ability, fulfill all the prescribed requirements, the possibility of re-use their respray by re-emulsifying the other coating finishes. The lacquers and paints prepared from aliphatic polyurethanes touched the better results. Quality of waterborne paints cured by UV radiation depends on the matrix, the rate of evaporation of water to polymer conversion reaction, the surface moisture, the air velocities, temperature and humidity. Finishes of water-based paints require increasingly high quality and fine grinding surface, reducing the amount of torn out fibers, grinding the surface always just before completion. Based on the results of the evaluation of the physical-mechanical properties of coatings technological conditions which must be followed during application and drying of UV curing of water-borne, polyurethane paints were determined. Featured technological parameters for water evaporation and drying of coating films with water-based paints are: ambient temperature 35--40 °C, intermediate humidity 30--40% relative humidity and air velocity 15--25 m / s. The great impact the finishing different kinds of wood is aimed on the possibility of finishing some tropical wood species and conifers. Some tropical wood species inhibit polymerization of aliphatic and aromatic polyurethane varnish. The waterborne aliphatic polyurethane coating UV curable is less sensitive to inhibition of polymerization film of rating. Coatings are sensitive to film thickness. At higher deposition coatings no polymerization in the entire thickness of the coating film and the upper layer coating film is inhibited by air oxygen. The recommended amount of waterborne paint coating of UV cured polyurethane coating for application of waterborne UV-cured coating is 70--90  g/m2 and cured film thickness 35--45 g/m2.

Keywords: waterborne lacquers; aliphatic polyurethanes waterborne lacquers; aromatic polyurethanes waterborne finishing materials; UV radiation cured polyurethanes; acrylates; spraying; species wood; olphactrometric influence of waterborne finished surfaces; GC/MS; technologies of finishing by waterborne coating materials

Kula, E., Švarc, P.: Earthworms (Lumbricidae) of forest ecosystems disturbed by air pollution and affected by reclamation liming in the Ore Mountains. Folia Mendel. Univ. Brun., 2011, Vol. IV, No. 2. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-482-2

A presented literature survey brings a detailed introduction into problems of the community of earthworms in relation to mountain forest ecosystems affected by air pollution (acidity) and revitalization processes of the soil environment (liming). Earthworms were obtained by the method of formalin soil traps, soil sampling and extraction in Tullgren apparatuses and individual collection. The survey was carried out in the area of the eastern Ore Mountains (Krušné hory) in 2003--2009. Aerial reclamation liming was operationally implemented in Forest District Klášterec in the period 1986--2002 and for the purpose of research in Forest District Litvínov in 2003. In the eastern Ore Mountains, 14 species of earthworms (Lumbricidae) with the eudominant proportion of Dendrobaena octaedra, D. attemsi, D. illyrica and D. vejdovskyi were noted. The bioindication importance of Lumbricidae in the man-affected area was demonstrated at the level of forest vegetation zones and edaphic categories. Forest type groups were not profiled unambiguously by the coenose of earthworms. The interaction of caught earthworms using the method of soil traps and Tullgren was proved. Nevertheless, for the purpose of complexity, it is suitable to use both methods simultaneously. In the area of the Kienhaida nature reserve with anthropogenically changed adjacent forest stands of substitute species, communities of earthworms were differentiated both qualitatively and quantitatively according to site conditions (soil, weed infestation, stand structure). The poorest community characterizes a beech stand (3 species) and spruce stands (5 species) whereas, on inter-mound plots (weed-infested for a long time), the occurrence of all eight species was demonstrated. In the area affected by long-term aerial liming (Forest District Klášterec), 10 species of earthworms were noted. An unambiguous dependence of the abundance of earthworms on the frequency of liming was not proved, however, the character of the soil environment (pH, P, Mg, Ca, K, C/N) and the population density of dominant species of Lumbricidae were defined. The goal-directed effect of revitalization liming was evaluated in the area of Buttersteig-Loučná (Forest District Litvínov) in the period 2003--2009. Changes were demonstrated in population dynamics in relation to site conditions, differentiated inputs of dolomite limestone and climatic effects. Generally, positive reactions of earthworms on revitalization liming were proved. Basic findings are summarized on particular species of earthworms caught in forest ecosystems of the eastern Ore Mountains as well as the earthworm relation to liming.

Keywords: earthworms; Lumbricidae; population dynamics; ecology; forest ecosystems; reclamation liming; Ore Mountains, Krušné hory

Sabolovič, M.: Business Valuation. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2011, Vol. IV, No. 3. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-503-4

The monograph concerns the results of research dealing with advanced methodological approaches to business valuation and econometric analysis and decomposition of  value of businesses. The main subject of this study was contribution to the improvement of rudimental approaches to business valuation. At the first stage comparative analysis of contemporary theoretical business valuation approaches was carried out. Proposed valuation taxonomy integrals three niveaus -- philosophic, economic and price. Rudimental methods and techniques for valuation of intangibles were assorted into qualitative and quantitative approaches. Categorization of methods and terms in accordance with International Valuation Standards were  discussed. The applied research methodology was determined as a combination of businesses and intangibles valuation approaches. In addition, the holistic conception of intangibles  was derived as a working definition for the survey. At the second stage the model for estimation of trends in value ratio of intangibles on income value of businesses suitable for time-series extensive analysis was proposed. Empirical primary research for data collection was based on Credit info database afterwards. Data collection was limited to NUTS-0 Czech Republic. Time-series of values were since 1995 to 2005. Main method of valuation was assigned the Excess Earnings Method. For a low objectified boundary value was applied Direct Capitalization Method. Costs Method was used for estimation of intrinsic value of businesses. At the third stage values of the selective sample of businesses were estimated. For assessment of a value ratio of intangibles on the selective sample of businesses income value were designed statics and dynamics models. Models were created for time series analysis and tested by fundamental statistics. Consequently, the extended draft of dynamics model within power of brand was designed -- Dynamics Brand Power Equation. Finally, results were discussed. The trend of value ratio of intangibles on income value of businesses significantly increases in the Czech Republic in observed period.

Keywords: value; business valuation; intangibles; excess earnings method; direct capitalization method; costs valuation method

Dvořák, J., Smutný, V.: The effects of crop rotation and herbicides on weed seed bank in the soil. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2011, Vol. IV, No. 4. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-504-1

Between the years 1967 and 1985, weed seed bank in the soil of arable land was examined in a small-plot stationary long-term field experiment at Basic Agrotechnical Research Institute, Hrušovany u Brna. Two types of seeds were defined: "entire seeds" that, during visual observation, seemed unharmed, and "healthy seeds," which had undisturbed seed content (most likely viable seeds). The effect of crop sequence in three separate five-year series was examined. Furthermore, it was also observed in monocultural corn grains and winter wheat, all without the application of herbicides. In the same options, postemergence herbicides against dicotyledonous weeds and Avena fatua were used in winter wheat and spring barley. The soil's bank of weed seeds comprised of 50 types in differing numbers. A detailed examination of 18 significant weeds was executed. The resulting weed infestation of entire seeds in untreated fields over a 19-year period increased by 55--106% in different crop rotations, in the corn monoculture by 325%, and in the winter wheat monoculture by 373%. Variants with crop rotation treated with herbicides had lower numbers than in the initial year; but the winter wheat monoculture, weed infestation increased by 136%. The changes to the soil's seed bank without the effect of herbicides applied compensation of those retreating weeds that, under the given conditions, expanded. Among these receding types belong Sinapis arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus, Silene noctiflora and Stellaria media. Decreases that were not as significant, especially in healthy seeds, occurred in Anagallis arvensis. Increase was noted in Consolida regalis, Descurainia sophia, Papaver rhoeas, and Amaranthus retroflexus. Significant changes were seen in Avna fatua. The soil's seed bank of Polygonum aviculare grew severalfold only in the winter wheat's monoculture. Stability was discovered in seeds of Chenopodium album and Stachys annua. The following types were among the weeds that had among the most sensitive reactions: Descurainia sophia, Consolida regalis, and Papaver rhoeas. In semi-sensitive types, i.e. Sinapis arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus, and Silene noctiflora, an increase in weed infestation was observed by entire and healthy seeds after the application of herbicides. Chemical weed control had a significant direct impact; the effect of changes resulting in competition inside the weed population was also important. Herbicides did not completely eliminate the effect of crop rotation. Increases and decreases in numbers and the time intervals of these changes were characteristics for individual weed species.

Keywords: weed seed bank in the soil; crop rotation; herbicides; weed seed bank of particular weed species total; entire and healthy seeds; relation between weed seed bank and actual weed infestation

Dařena, F., Rábová, I.: Selected approaches to creating competitive advantage. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2011, Vol. IV, No. 5. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-526-3

Solving emerging problems, active opportunities searching and their exploitation are essential in the process of creating a competitive advantage and being a successful company. The competitive forces that cause the pressure for change in organizations influence the organizations from the inside and outside. Particular approaches for creating a competitive advantage can be classified into several classes, called generic competitive strategies. Their common feature is that they focus mainly on internal and external organizational efficiency and effectiveness. This publication presents selected approaches that can significantly contribute to creating and maintaining the competitiveness. These approaches are focused on marketing and customer relationship management, i. e. the external side of the business, and improving organizational performance by adoption of process management and application of a suitable framework for enterprise architecture, i.e. the internal side of business. The publication presents issues of supporting marketing activities of companies that have substantial significance for the implementation of a number of generic competitive strategies. The work includes architectural design of marketing information system, presents the main blocks of the marketing information system, their main features and possible implementation solutions. Attention is also aimed to the area of customer relationship management and the implementation of this philosophy in companies from different perspectives is evaluated. The focus is also directed to modern decision support tools for customers who are the most important business stakeholders. The second main topic is a combination of business management and information technologies with the goal of understanding business processes and identifying how to use them in an effective way, because the knowledge of the relationships in a business and their documentation in the form of enterprise architecture is becoming a major driver of competitive advantage. Setting the business mission, critical success factors and risks analysis, critical business outcomes in the enterprise architecture, their comparison to competitors, enable designing business processes that can help in achieving the organization's goals. The publication discusses the connection between business architecture and IT architecture, the importance of enterprise architecture for development and innovation, and the ways how the architecture can help managers and system engineers to gain a deeper understanding of their projects.

Keywords: competitive advantage; marketing information system; customer relationship management; enterprise architecture; business process modeling; business rules; information systems and technologies

Ostřížek, J., Kouba, L.: Public private partnership -- some theoretical and practical aspects of its realization. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2011, Vol. IV, No. 6. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-538-6

The publication is themed on Public Private Partnership (PPP) concept and projects, with special focus on its possible realization in the Czech republic. In the Czech republic, the Public Private Partnership policy was announced in 2004. The Czech government has considered the PPP concept as possible alternative of public investing and public service providing. Today, one of the key reasons, which result in increasing intensity of Public Private Partnership discussion, was the financial and economic crisis from 2008 and 2009. This crisis caused growing pressure on public finances and public expenditures, especially. We consider the publication as complex work, which provides basic characteristics and theoretical background of the Public Private Partnership concept. Of course, various differences between standard public procurements and PPP projects were mentioned and PPP typology and project evaluation process were specified. Significant part of the publication discusses theoretical background of the PPP design. Firstly, the PPP is discussed form the economic theory point of view, where new institutional economy and new political economy are considered as suitable concepts to justify the PPP realization and existence. Secondly, the public administration and public management theories are mentioned to vindicate Public Private Partnership (New Public Management and New Public Services, especially). Important part of proposed publication deals with the discussion of PPP realization impacts on the Czech economy and Czech public finances, including the impact on size and structure of the GDP and particular fiscal indicators (including fiscal risks). At the end of this publication both authors express their persuasion that the PPP projects are suitable and applicable in the Czech republic and should be systematically used as standard public procurements alternative.

Keywords: Public private partnership, economic policy, economic crisis, pro-growth impulses, theoretical background of the PPP

Šlezingr, M.: Bank erosion -- possible ways of bank stabilization. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2011, Vol. IV, No. 7. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-566-9

The publication deals with the issue of bank stabilization of water bodies. It is divided into three basic parts. The first one of them titled Current state of knowledge about the given subject summarizes the current knowledge concerning bank stabilization, the reliability of used methods, including prognostic methods and the used software. The second part contains an analysis of theoretical aspects of the origination and development of bank erosion. The basis of this part is a presentation of the factors conditioning the creation of erosion and the factors causing it. An important component is also an analysis of the wave regime on an example of Brno Reservoir and a presentation of basic criteria of the erosion degree.
The most significant part of the monograph is a presentation of authors' results and their own contribution to the solution. This is mainly reflected in chapter The issue of bank erosion -- establishing a prognosis of bank line retreat and the following part describing a basic modification of the presented prognostic method. The presented method is described in detail and explained using an example. Another significant part of the book is the appendices providing the photo documentation of the stabilization measures implemented in the bank zone. These also include diagrams and detailed descriptions of each stabilization measure.

Keywords: erosion, stabilization, river, dam, water, wind

Foukalová, J., Brtnický, M., Kynický, J., Pokorný, E.: Sledování vybraných respiračních charakteristik černozemí na Moravě. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2011, Vol. IV, No. 8. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-317-7

In this thesis the biological activity of chernozem soil was monitored by chosen method and valuation limits were derived. The thesis was applied to microbial respiration which can report much information about soil state. Method of respirometric test is based on production of carbon dioxide measurement. Original interferometric method was partly modified and values of basal and potential respiration of soil were obtained for this method. Due to comparison of basal and potential soil respiration, values of relative respiration were obtained. Composite samples for analysis were taken by soil brace topsoil and subsoil. The samples were taken in locality of middle Moravia. Basal respiration (B): in topsoil the average was 0.335 +- 0,033 mg CO2 100 g-1 h-1, in subsoil the average was 0.218 +- 0.017 mg CO2 100 g-1 h-1. The basal respiration was low. Physiological availability of soil nitrogen (N/B): in topsoil the average was 1.332 +- 0.067 and in subsoil the average was 1.353 +- 0.056. At both monitored depths (topsoil and subsoil) availability of soil nitrogen was lower.
Amount of easily available soil organic substances (G/B): in topsoil the average was 8.233 +- 0.626 and in subsoil the average was 6.544 +- 0.567. Results of this parameter show lower amount of easily available soil organic substances.
Ratio of available carbon and nitrogen in soil (G/N): in topsoil the average was 6.374 +- 0.503 and in subsoil the average was 5.005 +- 0.480. In topsoil, the soil microorganisms are sustained better by nitrogen than organic substances. In subsoil, both elements are in well-balanced physiological ratio. Stability of organic substances in soil (NG/B): In topsoil the average was 14.166 +- 1.035, in subsoil the average was 13.751 +- 1.259. Higher values mean higher stability.
The factor of a complex effect (FKP): in topsoil the average was 1.401 +- 0.097, in subsoil the average was 1.642 +- 0.142. 40 years ago, scientific research showed much higher results for the factor a complex effect (10.31 -- 10.54 in subsoil) compared to results of this thesis.

Keywords: soil respiration; chernozem; basal respiration; potential respiration; biological activity of soils

Rybička, J., Čačková, P., Přichystal, J.: Principles of effective documents processing and use in marketing communication. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2011, Vol. IV, No. 9. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-577-5

During computer data processing users face the problem of suitable software selection to complete a given task. This process if often ineffective, as the users usually work only with a narrow set of programs and are unable to have knowledge about all programs available. Qualified selection of available software is time consuming and demanding for regular user because of large number of software products and their complexity. This text is therefore devoted to possibilities of software selection optimization, especially in the area of the document processing as text processing software is easily accessible to all computer users. However a tool for software selection support has not been available. When designing such a new system described in this text, the complex access was choosen based on typographic rules, normative documents and documented properties of software systems. Another innovative feature is that the system allows the users to define their own requirements. A model of a system for optimized software selection process is designed, which works with input sets of users' requirements and programs' properties, recommending an optimal solution. The system is designed as open, extensible, accessible and is oriented on users and their needs. The objective of such a system is to find the best correspondence between requirements and software properties. The key phase of the system process is the announcement of the outcome to the user. Each property of each software is appended with an annotation informing the users how their requirement could be accomplished by a certain software property. While manuals talk about rules and technology principles separately, fundamental contribution of this text is a systematic processing of annotations to lead users to technical solution of typographic and language rules. This allows users to be able to process required task using the software they are not familiar to work with. It brings wider possibilities, more effective methods of work and time savings.
Examples of annotations for three mostly used software systems (MS Word 2010, Adobe InDesign CS4 and LATEX/XETEX) are mentioned in the text. The text also includes an example of the system usage showing which properties are taken in account when creating a choosen document type and how the output information for the user is completed. An experimental implementation on the basis of the theoretical model was made. Its outputs conform to intended behaviour of the model. The theoretical model validity was verified.

Keywords: software selection; user requirements; optimization system; mathematical model; effective document processing; programme parameters and properties; typographic and language rules

Turčínková, J.: Shopping behavior of inhabitants of Czech Republic in processes of integration and globalization. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2011, Vol. IV, No. 10. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-576-8

Czech retail market has undergone considerable development in the last two decades. Also the preferences of Czech consumers have changed. Research agencies try to provide businesses with their segmentations and typologies. In most cases, however, their goal is to provide typologies that allow general application. Department of Marketing and Trade at FBE MENDELU has engaged in consumer behavior research issues for number of years, especially the areas of the food market. The aim of this text is to make available selected results of research aimed at understanding consumer preferences in the Czech Republic when shopping for food and the factors that have an impact on the process. It will also focus on evaluation of the income situation of the Czech population, as it was enabled thanks to the EU-SILC (The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) database. The analyses of household income focused on the following metrics and methodologies: descriptive statistics, income decile breakdown and subsequent comparison, the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficients, the number of households in risk of poverty and the depth of poverty. The suggested segmentation in the retail food market, which is based on knowledge acquired, is also presented along with conclusions and recommendations for business entities operating on the food market in the Czech Republic. Customer segmentation is based on the survey, which took place in all regions of the Czech Republic in three phases. The total number of questionnaires utilized for processing was 5809. Data collection was carried out among respondents aged 12+, both in electronic form (via a questionnaire system ReLa developed by the Department of Marketing and Trade at FBE MENDELU) and printed form in order to obtain information as well as from consumers who do not use the internet. Non-probability, convenience sampling method was used. The questionnaire was focused on consumer preferences according to the marketing mix elements and basic knowledge of the characteristic shopping behavior. Questions (except identification questions) were formulated as statements with which respondents were according to Likert scale to express levels of agreement on a scale of 1 to 10 (where 10 means "strongly agree" and 1 "strongly disagree"). After elimination of incomplete questionnaires, the data were processed using the statistical software Statistica v. 9, resulting in calculations of frequencies (absolute and relative), for the quantitative characters were calculated mean, median, mode, variance, standard deviation, skew and spikiness. Further conducted analyses were analysis of contingency, but also less traditional approach provided by artificial intelligence tools (two approaches using neural networks were applied). Further analyses were cluster and factor analysis. The resulting definition of 8 segments (after identification of the relevant segmentation criteria) used for the segmentation three axes: 1. mobility (preference of close to shops), 2. the size and frequency of purchases, 3. the use of leaflets. After definition of the segments, their profiles were created (based on their demographics and psychografics) and their preferences assessed with regard to individual elements of the marketing mix. The segments were named as: Prudent economists, Spontaneous innovators, Price-sensitive and mobile, Independent and mobile, Thoughtful traditionalists, Indifferent (Middle-of-the-road), Thoughtful mobile traditionalists and Spontaneous mobile innovators. The analysis of contingency proved mostly medium strength of dependency (coef. of contingency ranges from 0.1966 to 0.7120) for consumer preferences and respondents' belonging to segments.

Keywords: segmentation; retail; groceries; decision-making; income situation; EU-SILC; Czech Republic