Folia Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis
Archiv: Volume IX
SPURNÝ, J. et al. Complete Ichtyological Investigations of the Oslava River After 40 Years. Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2016, Vol. IX, No. 1. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7509-417-9
The aim of the study is to evaluate the long-term changes and status of the fish community structure and development of the Oslava River. The first extensive ichthyologic investigation was undertaken from 1959 to 1963, and subsequently with other partial investigations from 1969 to 1974, 1982 to 1983 and 1993 to 1994. Our recent ichthyologic research started 1997 and continued till 2003. This particular survey was aimed at the following; species structure of the fish community, the occurrence of endangered fish species, the angling catches, the characteristic of the macrozoobenthos community, and the saprobity of the river stretches. The investigations were carried out in 23 sections of Oslava 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8 fisheries between river kilometres 15.3 and 86.7. The standard electrofishing method was used for the estimation of the ichthyocenosis status. Zoobenthos specimen samples were taking in the frequency of 3 to 5 annually and in case of Oslava 6 fishery it was monthly. In the Oslava River (outside the Mostiště dam reservoir) there are about 25 fish species, of which 5 of them are not native. Species structure of the Oslava River fish community did not undergo significant changes during the last years 40. The economically important fish species population, showed a long-term trend of decline and this is evident in the case of rheophilous fish species nase and barbel, which is accompanied by increase in the amount of chub. Among protected fish species, schneider is the most extended in the longitudinal profile of the Oslava River. The fish community abundance of cyprinid fisheries of the Oslava River fluctuated in the range of 2,235 spec.ha-1 to 5,077 spec.ha-1 and its biomass from 79.2 kg.ha-1 to 454.5 kg.ha-1 from 1997 to 2003. The Oslava 6 salmonid fishery had an average fish community abundance of 815 spec.ha-1 and average biomass of 94.3 kg.ha-1 between 2001 and 2002. Among cyprinids fisheries of the Oslava River, Oslava 5 is mostly exploited by anglers. In 2002, 790 angling visits.ha-1 there were realized and total annual catch reached 507 kg.ha-1 (with a carp ratio of 95 %). The Oslava 6 fishery represents the most intensively managed salmonid fishery of the Moravian Angling Union in the last 30 years with recent (2001) annual angling pressure of 482 angling visits.ha-1 and total annual fish catch of salmonid fish 184.8 kg.ha-1 (with a grayling ratio of 3.7 %). The average annual values of the zoobenthos community biomass between 9.0 g.m-2 and 30.6 g.m-2 found recently correspond to moderately productive flow of barbel zone watercourse. At Oslava 2, 3 and 6 fisheries, a total of 239 taxons of zoobenthos were determined in 2003. Long-term sedimentation of Fe(OH)3 sludge discharged out of drinking water treatment at the upper section of Oslava 6 fishery caused the decrease of zoobenthos biomass by 68 % in comparison with the lower section of the fishery. Water quality of the all monitored Oslava River stretches falls into middle values of β-mesosaprobity (saprobity index 1.71–2.17). The river discharge stability is disrupted in many stretches by small hydroelectric powers installations.
Keywords: fish community, zoobenthos community, abundance, biomass, water saprobity, angling
BURG, P. et al. Soil compaction in vineyards and possibilities of their remedy. Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2016, Vol. IX, No. 2. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7509-436-0
This work presents in a comprehensive summary the results of experimental work and economic analysis focused on monitoring the degradation processes of soil near vineyards. Based on these results, it suggests technical and agrotechnical options of remedy. Based on several years of monitoring the progress of individual work operations in viticulture, numbers of passes in rut tracks between rows were estimated. These, depending on the particular subject’s mechanisation equipment and production-technological vary between 25 to 34 passes per year. A large part of this work engages in the evaluation of physical properties of soils affected by both, the way it was treated and by the used mechanisation systems, or as the case may be by using different types of tires. When evaluating selected physical properties of soils in grassy and cultivated between rows, in vineyards in the cadastral area of Velké Němčice, measured results have not confirmed a clear presumption of positive impact of grassing on reducing soil compaction, nor have they demonstrated fundamental differences in soil compaction in grassy and cultivated between rows. In assessing the impact of passes of different groups of mechanization means (tractor sets, portal carrier), in vineyards in the cadastral area of Mikulov, there were set high values of penetration resistance of soil in rut tracks, which reached 2.7 to 2.9 MPa. Also, the distribution of soil penetration resistance in soil maps shows that in terms of implementation of mechanized operations it is preferable to use a portal carrier. During the simulation evaluation of compressive stress and pressure distribution in the rut track caused by vinicultural tractors New Holland TN 75 V with different types of tires, related to the soil compaction, the analyses have not demonstrated in any of the evaluated alternatives the impact on crossing the border of harmful compaction. Nevertheless, the results suggest that the size of the loaded tire contact surface may significantly affect the soil compaction. The results of experiments confirm the positive effect of higher doses of compost on penetrometric resistance of soil and its infiltration characteristics. A comparison of the effect of different variants of fertilization states that the most significant differences heading to reduce penetration resistance by 0.5–1.0 MPa, are shown mainly by the option of application of 100 t·ha-1. Doses of compost positively affect also the values of cumulative infiltration (4.2–4.7cm·s-1), which are significantly higher in variants with compost than in control samples. However, from a practical point of view, the problem of its costly application, including incorporation into the soil profile, remains. Agrotechnical corrective actions are represented mainly by wider use of organic materials applied to the soil in the form of wood chips and mainly composts. Monitoring and evaluation of the impact of applied composts on changes in the physical properties of soils in the vineyards form one of the major focal points of the work. Also in these experiments, it was confirmed that implementation of any type of organic matter into the soil is a prerequisite for better aeration, soil porosity, bulk density of soil, better structure, and even more favourable values of penetrometric soil resistance in the space between rows. Economic analyses presented in this paper focus on determining operating expenses of compost application in the vineyards. The results obtained from the model calculations show that during the annual application of compost into the vineyards at a dose of 20 t·ha-1, the grower should calculate with costs from 2000 to 2900 Kč·ha-1; whereas applying a dose of 60 t·ha-1, which can already significantly affect retention capacity of the soil, requires costs of 5 300–8 100 Kč·ha-1. When evaluating operating costs of units for depth loosening of soil, these units were compared: sets comprised of one type of energy power source (tractor CASE QUANTUM 95 F), two constructional variants of depth cultivators (BRAUN VARIO 2, CLEMENS TLK 2R), and a spade plough with a different purchase price (GRAMEGNA V93). Based on input values, model calculations enabled to state the amount of operating expenses, which vary by the evaluated sets from 2 873–6 023 Kč·ha-1. Higher values of operating costs are shown by the spade plough, because of the higher purchase price of the machine and lower performance achieved in comparison with depth cultivators. On the other hand, while using this machine, the soil between rows is processed in its entire width, whereas the depth soil cultivator processes only two lanes in the parallel direction with the rows treated.
Keywords: viticulture, soil structure, soil compaction, physical properties of soil, methods of measurement, infiltration, economic efficiency
POSPÍŠILOVÁ, L. et al. Standard analytical methods and evaluation criteria of soil physical, agrochemical, biological, and hygienic parameters. Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2016, Vol. IX, No. 3. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7509-438-4
The paper summarises widely used analytical methods in soil science. Determination of physical, agrochemical, biological, and hygienic parameters, which are closely connected with soil quality/health, is highly important today from environmental point of view. Detailed description of soil sampling, handling and samples storage is also given. The main attention is paid to the standard methods of soil testing and evaluation. Other commonly used methods of soil testing are briefly noted. Furthermore, the practical key, point scales, tables, figures and agricultural limits for soil quality assessment are included. Besides Czech standard methods also international standard methods for soil analysis are mentioned. The paper is supposed to be a useful tool for practical and research purposes in soil testing and evaluation.
Keywords: physical, agrochemical, biological, and hygienic soil parameters, analytical methods, soil quality