Folia Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis

Archiv 2013: Volume VI


Kuťková, T.: Contemporary trends in flower use in landscape architecture. Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2013, Vol. VI, No.1. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-708-3

The monograph deals with the meaning and use of flowers in garden and landscape architecture. The main part of this work is devoted to contemporary trends in the use of flowers, both annuals and perennials. Flowers represent one of the basic means of expression for work of landscape architect. Compositional, floricultural, ecological and other characteristics of flowers and the ability of their use are prerequisites for quality design and function of flower detail. Traditional form of flower use in garden and landscape architecture is flower bed. The work deals with flower bed typology according to the various attributes - floricultural group of plants, technology of establishment, external shape, internal compositional, height, colour, exposure time of flower bed and intensity of maintenance.
Annuals are in practice used for rapid effect in composition and bring substantial colour enlivening in space. Altitudes to the use of annuals change at the late twentieth and early 21st century, in line with general trends in the given field pointing to the establishment the communities inspired by nature, to search for cost-saving technologies of establishment and cultivation. Combinations of species and varieties extend; wider taxonomic composition is used in practice; internal scheme of flower beds turns from area to detail; floricultural group of plants are unconventionally combined; ways of direct sowing are used as methods of flower bed establishment.
Study of theoretical possibilities to current trends and summary of the current state of knowledge were indispensable for their use in garden and landscape practice. Elaboration of specific technologies and declaration of principles for their application is subject to verification in local conditions. Not only for this reason, many author's trials and realizations were conducted: annual flower beds established by direct sowing; reconstruction of annual flower beds as part of the reconstruction of the major axis of Michalov Park in Přerov; and annually renovated flower beds in city district Praha 3.
Perennials are the largest group of flowers with a wide range of use in practice. New approaches to designing and establishment of perennial flower beds are getting to the forefront; these approaches are based on the nature-inspired communities, using ecological knowledge and processes occurring in them. The work deals with definition and characteristics of static, partially dynamic and dynamic perennial communities and similarly to annuals, theoretical backgrounds verifies by means of author's realized project: perennial flower beds as part of the revitalization of southeast and northwest part of the park circuit of the Plzeň city historical centre; perennial border reconstruction in the castle park in Lednice; and perennial plantings with extensive maintenance in the town of Nová Ves nad Žitavou.

Keywords: landscape architecture; plant using; annual seed mixes; perennial border; perennial mixes; author projects; urban space

Baroň, M.: Effect of assimilable nitrogen on grape must fermentation. Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2013, Vol. VI, No.2. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-713-7

This work deals with the content of assimilable nitrogen in grape musts, its consumption by yeasts during fermentation and production of post-fermentation products. Experimental variants involved wine samples originating from different South Moravian wine-growing subregions, different types of inter-row grass stand, and different combinations of rootstocks with varietal scions. Experiments were performed for years 2007 and 2008. Experimental variants involved 48 musts and wines originating from South Moravian. These data enabled to monitor contents of yeast assimilable nitrogen in musts and to draw a general conclusion that these musts contain high concentrations of both ammonium ions and yeast assimilable nitrogen (124.4 mg/L and 257.8 mg/L, respectively) so that there is no danger of having problems with the nutrition of yeasts in the course of fermentation. Also the average production of acetic acid was low (215.8 mg/L); this indicated that in the majority of must samples without added nutrients, the course of fermentation was smooth and trouble-free. A comparison of both rootstocks (rootstocks 'Kober 5BB' and 'SO 4') indicated that average contents of ammonia ions were higher in the variant with the rootstock 'Kober 5BB'. But these differences were not significant. There were great differences between both varieties under study (varieties 'Rhein Riesling' and 'Green Veltliner'): grape musts made of the variety 'Green Veltliner' contained higher levels of ammonia ions and yeast assimilable nitrogen. It is well known that grapes of this variety contain high amounts of proteins. Experimental material originated from two viticultural sub-regions (Znojmo and Mikulov) and was collected from vineyards with and without grass cover. As compared with the Znojmo sub-region, higher levels of assimilable nitrogen were found out in the Mikulov sub-region. Higher levels of assimilable nitrogen were found out also in vineyards without grass cover. The obtained results confirm that the method of formaldehyde titration is universal and simple so that it can be recommended for winemakers as a useful and efficient analytical tool which makes sufficiently accurate results.

Keywords: assimilable nitrogen; amonium; yeasts; amino acids; YAN

Kováč, J., Krilek, J., Kučera, M., Kopecký, Z., Hlásková, L.: Ergonomic parameters of wood cutting process. Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2013, Vol. VI, No.3. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-766-3

The tree processing, from cutting a tree in the stand to the final product i.e. assortment, is dependent on energetic consumption and speed of individual operations like cutting, delimbing, making assortments, manipulation and placing to the area of work (in the different stages of the production process there is a tree, a trunk or an assortment). To ensure correct function of the whole working chain there is necessary to optimize every individual working operation. The development of more and more difficult machines and devices, using new progressive technologies, tendency to decrease energy consumption, material difficulty of products, requirements on high reliability of machines and automation in operation press us to search theoretical basics of wood production processes and utilization of new developing forest and wood processing techniques. The work with a chain saw is risky and has negative impact on the health of workers. It has been clear from recent findings. The limitation of these impacts has influence on technical, technological and organizational actions serving as preventive ones. That is the reason why the famous chain saw producers established different technical supports which have the influence on decrease of vibrations and noise. It is necessary to realize several actions within the maintenance of chain saws to fulfil the goals of a technical action.
We can solve this problem in two ways. The first one is based on innovation and adaptation of chain saws to new working conditions. The second one is based on searching utilization possibilities for non-conventional principles of chip and chipless cutting.
The book brings the possibility to realize various research tasks regarding to tools for cross sectional wood cutting like circular saw blades, chain saws and other non-conventional tools, research of ergonomic work aspects, durability (lifetime), wearing and choosing appropriate cutting conditions.

Keywords: cutting process; wood cutting; chain saws; circular saw blades; ergonomics

Zahradníková, H., Petříková, K.: Forcing and possibilities of utilization of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.). Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2013, Vol. VI, No.4. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-786-1

The watercress Nasturtium officinale R. Br. is a leaf vegetable rich in nutritional substances, appropriate for forcing in periods when there is a lack of fresh vegetables. In this paper the technology of whole-year hydroponic forcing in a rockwool cube is tested, evaluated and optimalised, with an ebb -- and -- flow nutrient system. The culture was based on generative and vegetative propagation. To reduce the nitrate content in the harvested herb, 3 days before harvest the nutrient solution was replaced with water, this could reduce the nitrate levels in the winter months by 37 %. A significantly lower nitrate content was found in the period from April to September, when there is higher solar activity. The average nitrate content was 929 mg to 1 000 g of the herb. The average herb yield from generatively propagated variants reached 3 165 g.m-2, number of harvests per year was 13, the average yield of vegetatively propagated variants reached 3 204 g.m-2, the number of harvests per year was 14. The first harvest of the vegetatively propagated variant took place 14 days after cuttings. With respect to the hygienic measures, the health of watercress was found good. Achieved yields allow economic growing of watercress. Chemical compounds were analysed in the watercress. In the wintwer months a significantly lower fiber content (by 33 %) was found than in July. It was found that 1 000 g of watercress contain on average: 822 mg of vitamin C; 0.84 mg of vitamin B1; 0.75 mg of B2; 0.57 mg of B6; mineral substances: 641 mg of Na; 822 mg of Ca; 5 032 mg of K; 1.5 μg of Se; 5.1 mg of Zn; 16.1 mg of I and 274 mg of Mg. Furthermore, in 1 000 g the analysis found: 270 mg of carotenoids, 1 117 mg of chlorophyll a and 894 mg of chlorophyll b. The content of sulforaphane, which has anti-carcinogenic effects, was set at 45 mg, the content of essential oil to 167 mg. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was 544 mg of gallat per 100 g . The content of nutrients was influenced by harvest date. Identified nutritional substances confirm the high dietetic value and chemoprotective effects of watercress. Another finding was the nematocidal effect of watercress. The juice and extract of watercress eliminated the occurrence of nematodes Meloidogyne hapla by tomatoes and increased their yield. The yield increase was proportional to the concentration of juice and extract.

Keywords: watercress; hydroponic forcing; yield; nutritional value; nematocidic effects

Bulíř, P., Bulířová, L.: Hardy ferns in landscape architecture. Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2013, Vol. VI, No.5. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-872-1

The objective of this monograph was to assess available assortment of hardy ferns for landscaping purposes. Particular attention was paid to presentation and evaluation of their visual aspects and their characteristics with regard to morphology and growth. In its theoretical part, the monograph summarizes and compares available pieces of knowledge which have been gathered about ferns in the fields of ecology, morphology and botany. Moreover, ferns are presented from the historical point of view with regard to their role in the evolution and in the history of garden art. A significant part of the theoretical section deals with issues related to the composition and cultivation characteristics of this group of plants.
The second part contains author's practical summarizes results gained from comparative experiment - terrain assessing and observating of selected hardy ferns. This comparative experiment was established to study a number of composition and cultivation characteristics of ferns, especially their relation to sunlight. The experiment aimed to verify and evaluate their growth parameters and visual aspects in real and defined site conditions, bearing in mind taxonomical and environmental comparability. The qualitative parameters of species were observed in 2006--2008. The experiment was carried out on two sites which differed in terms of ecology and location. Moreover, on each site there were two versions of the experiment -- plants growing in the sun and plants growing in the shade. The monitored set of fern species included 31 taxa. The assessing method of this experiment is described and presented in detail. Aggregate results for each taxon are processed in tables. These partial results were served for proposing a classification of monitored fern species based on their most important attributes. Thus ferns are classified, for instance, on the basis of their size potential, degree of sociability, changeability throughout the year, overwintering rate, tolerance to sunlight or seriousness of registered damage. Finally, it is proposed to include these fern species into the system of garden habitats (Lebensbereiche) defined by Sieber (SIEBER, 1990).

Keywords: hardy ferns; ecology of ferns; composition and cultivation characteristics of ferns; assessment of ferns; plant use

Brotan, J., Trnka, M., Hlavinka, P., Semerádová, D., Žalud, Z.: Climatic and agroclimatic conditions of Žabčice experimental field in the period 1961-2010 . Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2013, Vol. VI, No.6. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-907-0

The study evaluates the long-term series of selected meteorological parameters measured at the experimental field station Žabčice on the school farm of Mendel University in Brno (49 °1'37702" N a 16°37'07360" E, 179 m a.s.l.), Czech Republic. On the basis of the daily value the average, absolute (extreme) monthly and annual temperatures were calculated and quality controlled for each year from 1961 into 2010. This period was divided into the normal period of 1961--1990 and the subsequent twenty years 1991--2010. In addition, the annual data, monthly data, different parts of the year, such as quarters and climatological seasons were evaluated and compared. At the same time for both periods sum of active, effective temperatures and length of growing period were calculated and compared. Selected agro-climatic characteristics, such as the occurrence of frost days without snow cover, Huglin index or the occurrence of drought derived from water balance, were evaluated. Precipitation monthly and annual data were compared on the basis of daily totals. The conclusions of this local study, which was made in one of the warmest and driest sites in the Czech Republic, indicate some significant changes in climate parameters between 1961--1990 and 1991--2012 periods. Ten of twelve months show a higher average temperature in the last two decades, as well as the observed change in the distribution of rainfall during the year. Decrease of precipitation can be observed in the spring, while it is increasing in the summer. The highest monthly temperature difference between the two time evaluated periods was recorded in July (1.4 °C) respectively in August (1.7 °C). Statistically significant lower precipitation were recorded in 1961--2010 during spring months (April--June), which, together with the increase in air temperature during this period negatively affects the agro-climatic conditions for plant growth and development during the intensive biomass production.

Keywords: air temperature; precipitation; growing season; trends of meteorological parameters; temperature sums

Stávková, J., Antošová, V., Birčiaková, N.: Income Situation and Living Conditions of Inhabitants in the Czech Republic. Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2013, Vol. VI, No.7. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-911-7

The income situation and living conditions are inextricably linked with the assessment of the standard of living in the country. The publication presents a comprehensive overview of the characteristics of household income for the whole Czech Republic in the period of 2005 to 2011. The main monitored variable is disposable income per equivalised member. The income situation of households is analysed in detail by type of household, based on the number of household members who are economically active and achieved education level of the head of the household. Furthermore, the factors that affect the level of income are identified. For this purpose, ANOVA is used.
One of the crucial society problems, which the publication devotes considerable space to, are income differentiation and related poverty. Income inequality is measured by Gini coefficient. The poverty threshold is expressed as 60 % of median income. Poverty is also assessed on the basis of Sen coefficient that shows the depth of poverty. We studied the effect of social transfers paid to the individual deciles which are based on the achieved level of household income. Furthermore, the material deprivation as another dimension of poverty, which has a considerable impact on social exclusion as unemployment, is analysed. The last part is devoted to particular regions of the Czech Republic. The observed characteristics are the same as in the whole country. Also, the quality of life in regions through the analysis of main components is rated.
The amount of household income is primarily influenced by their economic activity, education and industry work. Age does not affect the amount of household's income significantly. The fastest growth was recorded in the income of the unemployed. People working in the sector of information and communication technologies have the highest income.
The Czech Republic is the state with the lowest levels of poverty across the European Union. This is related to the redistribution of social transfers. The highest share of social transfers consists of pensions. Living conditions are the best in the capital Prague and the Central Bohemian Region, the worst are for the inhabitants of Olomouc and Ústí Region.

Keywords: income; income inequality; poverty; material deprivation; social transfers; regions

Baroň, M.: The possibilities of sulfur dioxide reduction in wine technology. Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2013, Vol. VI, No.8. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-924-7

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of the most universal and efficient additives used in winemaking due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. However, allergies caused by SO2-derived compounds, namely the sulfites, are becoming more frequent, causing symptoms such as headaches, nausea, gastric irritation, and breathing difficulties in asthma patients. Consequently, the legislated maximum concentration of SO2 allowed in wines has been gradually reduced. For this reason, it is crucial in a competitive global winemaking market strategy, to reduce or even eliminate the use of SO2 as a preservative and to search for new healthier and safe strategies. This work gives an overview of the main methodologies that have been proposed so far and that have potential to be used in winemaking as an alternative or complementing method to SO2 dosing. The aim of this work is even the introduction of new interesting method of saturated higher fatty acids which is in three years testing program in Czech Republic under the enological conditions.
Mixture of higher fatty acids (HFA) -- C8, C10 and C12, were tested. Experiments have confirmed that addition of HFA into the fermenting media causes rapidly inhibition of yeasts metabolic activity, their death and complete stopping of alcoholic fermentation. There was found out almost double concentration of dead cells after 24 hours in wine treated with HFA (25.4 %) in opposite to untreated (48.5 %). Combination with 60 mg/L sulfur dioxide came out even better (32.9 to 77.0 %).
Then was monitored the influence of fatty acids on stored wine with residual sugar. At this point a dramatically prolongation of interval to secondary fermentation (depreciation of wine) in the bottle was confirmed. In re-fermentation test was found out the same and the strongest inhibition power of ratio 2:8, 1:9 and 0:10 as C8:C10 acids -- 65 days without re-fermentation.MLF experiments have confirmed that addition of sulphur dioxide into the fermenting media causes rapidly inhibition of lactic bacteria metabolic activity. Malic acid values were proportionally decreasing during 6 days of experiment and at the end was the content of this acid between 0.16 to 0.22 g/L, the only exception formed a variant with the addition of SO2 (1.57 g/L). After calculation of average consumption rate of malic acid results showed the inhibition power -- SO2 (81.05 %) followed by variant of 40 mg/L mixture of HFA (40.76 %), a variant of 200 mg/L of DMDC (31.98 %) and variant of 20 mg/L mixture of HFA (12.59 %).Finally, attention was paid to influence on the organoleptic characteristics of wine treated this way. In this case, it is possible to consider the recommended concentration of fatty acid below the threshold of susceptibility.
Optimized properties to inhibit yeasts and lactic acid bacteria with the current potential for treatment of wine against secondary fermentation is likely to offer a mixture of HFA C8, C10 and C12 (2:7:1) dissolved in 70 % vol. ethanol, with 100 ml ethanol solution containing 10 g of this mixture. Addition of HFA can significantly reduce the dosage of other preservatives such as sulfur dioxide and sorbic acid. This method can effectively reduce the cost of the technology involved wines with residual sugar.

Keywords: wine; technology; SO2; sulfur dioxide; DMDC; higher fatty acids; decanoic acid

Supuka, J. et al.: Landscape structure and biodiversity of woody plants in the agricultural landscape. Folia Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2013, Vol. VI, No.9. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-905-6

This publication assesses the development of changes in landscape structure in selected areas and the biodiversity of trees in non-forest woody vegetation elements (NFWV), with emphasis on the occurrence of trees significant in terms of gene pool. The development was assessed using historical map data, aerial photography and field research in time horizons 1869 (or 1892), 1949, 2010 (or 2012). For the purposes of the research, following cadastral territories were selected: Nitrianske Hrnčiarovce, Štitáre, Žirany, Kolíňany, Pohranice, Bádice, Dolné a Horné Lefantovce, Oponice. The development of changes was processed according to the classification scheme of 9 landscape-element groups. The biodiversity of woody plants in NFWV elements was evaluated according to their origin, growth formations and phytosociological criteria. For trees significant in terms of gene pool, the criteria of age, species rarity and dendrometric values were used. The identified changes in the landscape structure are a reflection of social and economic development of the area and the land ownership. During the assessed period 1869--2012, the proportion of built-up areas and technical works in the landscape increased by 1--2 %. Watercourses and bodies of water passed ameliorative modifications, the proportion of artificial water reservoirs increased and the proportion of wetlands decreased. The share of forests decreased in the period 1869--1949 by 5--7 %, till 2012, it increased to a comparable proportion by afforestation of pastures and delimited sites. From the group of agricultural landscape elements, the proportion of arable land increased in the period 1869--2012 by 2--5 %, the proportion of permanent grasslands decreased by 5--20 %, he share of small-scale vineyards decreased by about 1 %, after 1960, there have been established large-scale intensive orchards and vineyards. The mosaic structure of small-scale fields visible on aerial photographs from 1949 has been replaced by large-scale cooperative tracts of land during the collectivisation. The share of NFWV elements slightly increased in the period 1869--1949 by 1--2%, while in the period 1949--2012, it decreased by the same amount. In areas, where windbreaks were planted, the share of NFWV increased up to 2.5--5.0 %. Within NFWV elements, 12 to 22 woody-plant species were identified. The shrub layer is dominated by autochthonous species of the genera Crataegus, Euonymus, Rosa, Rubus, Swida. The tree layer along watercourses is dominated by species of the genera Alnus, Salix and Populus, along roads fruit trees of the genera Cerasus, Juglans, Malus and Prunus. The planted windbreaks are dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia, complemented by species of the genera Acer, Fraxinus and Ulmus. In abandoned vineyards, orchards and pastures, 10 woody-plant species of the genera Castanea, Morus, Quercus and Sorbus were identified, altogether 68 100--400 years-old trees as a gene-pool heritage. An amendment system was proposed for the NFWV elements, according to the following criteria: endangerment of the area by water erosion, regulation of the optimal plot size, the distribution of TSES elements and applying the principles of aesthetic landscape creation.

Keywords: landscape structure, development of changes, biodiversity of woody plants