Folia Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis

Archiv 2014: Volume VII


BURG P. et al.: The study of biologically active compounds in grapevine seeds and annual shoots and possibilities obtaining oil from the seeds. Folia univ. Agric. Et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2014, Vol. VII, No. 7. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-986-5

The aim of this study was to summarize the current knowledge about the properties and chemical composition of seeds and annual shoots vine with emphasis on biologically active substances, to describe the issue of separation of seeds from grape marc used to design technical solutions and to verify pressing oil from seeds and suggest lines for machine processing seeds in winery company. The knowledge gained is based on experimental work carried out in 2009–2014. The first part was devoted to the issue of vine seeds, which today is mainly used for oil pressing. The paper presents the main characteristics of seeds per variety and summarizes the results of analyzes of the major categories of biologically active compounds (polyphenols, vitamins, fatty acids) carried out on seeds of 34 varieties of grapes grown in Czech Republic. Another part of the work was dedicated to biologically active substances in annual shoot and presents the results of experimental measurements for the determination of antioxidant capacity and content of selected biologically active substances (stilbenoids, polyphenols, resveratrol, etc.). Results indicate that the vine annual shoots are a source of biologically active substances usable for pharmaceutical and other purposes. The amount of these substances is significantly involved by the place and the time of sampling. At the same time the question is implied the health mark of annual shoot term growth and because sampling takes place in a period of intense chemical protection vineyards. Significant operation in obtaining seeds from grape marc is a separation. The work is therefore also addressed to the principles of separation and possible solution separation of stationary and mobile devices. It describes the principles and results in mechanical separation using half-cylindrical sieves, cylindrical sieve and planar vibrating sieves, including flotation separation using pomace pumps. The most favorable results were achieved in the separation by plane vibrating sieves, where the value of the share of the separated seeds in all studied varieties was higher than 80%. Vibratory separator, which allowed obtaining the necessary quantities of grape seeds for further experimental work aimed at monitoring varietal seed yield and purity of the separated seeds has been designed and tested on the basis of these results. When verifying the performance was followed that with very small differences, mainly due to moisture marc reached 100 kg wet the separated seeds per hour. The part of the work devoted to the design of the technological line for oil pressing from the seeds of grapevine describes the design process taking into account balance, performance and economic conditions in medium and large wine producer. It describes the possible operations and assembly production lines for small and medium–sized wineries. In winery processing grapes 100–400 t (10–50 ha) of crude oil production may reach up to 200–1000 kg, the required performance of the separator, dryer and press the oil so not too high and needs suffice lines small devices with low investment requirements and the workspaces. Set of experiments also focused to verify the possibility of obtaining oil grape wine seeds by pressing in different conditions provided practical view and important information for the wine entities engaged in the oil production. The results showed that the cold pressing of grapes seeds can be obtained depending on varietal differences of 6–8% oil i.e. approx. 25–50% of the theoretically obtainable quantity. The remaining 50–75% of the oil is contained in the oil cakes. Quantity pressed oil is significantly influenced the production of seeds of the varieties of the grapes and their moisture during pressing. Performance during pressing using a press FARMET DUO reached 5–22 kg oil per hour. Obtained results showed that from 1 ha of vineyards with a yield of 8 tons of grapes can be obtained an average of 12 litres of oil. The paper also presents the results of oils samples analyzes from the seeds of the grapevine varieties grown in Czech Republic. The results of the analysis showed that the content of fatty acids, vitamin E and phenolic compounds is comparable with the content of these groups of substances in the oil derived from varieties other European wine regions. The work provides a set of data usable for the gradual introduction of the technology for obtaining oil from the seeds of the grapevine, which is characterized by a high content of usable biologically active substances and acids and therefore are mainly used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, gastronomy and other areas.

Keywords: grapevine, grape pomace, grape seeds, separator, biologically active substances, polyphenols, stilbenoids

HORÁK M. et al.: A reader in ethnobotany and phytotherapy. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2014, Vol. VII, No. 6. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-986-5

This book is a result of long-term cooperation among specialists from various scientific fields such as biology, anthropology, psychology, philology, botany and ecology. All of them are interested in studying the relationship that exists between people and plants, focusing primarily on how plants are used, managed and perceived in different cultures and societies. The content of this book is divided into seven chapters, starting with the introduction and description of the methodological framework. Each chapter contains original contributions from authors who have done research in a particular region in Europe, America, Africa or Asia. The book is finished by an overview of authors' profiles focused on future plans in research and fieldwork. This publication would not have been possible without the financial support of Mendel University in Brno. The book provides texts to university students, offering them a rich study material for improving their academic reading skills and learning scientific terminology. Regarding the form of contributions, we have decided to use the standard structure of the scientific paper, making the content easily accessible and understandable for students and researchers. So, the result is close to a compendium of texts collected from authors from different countries such as the United States, Peru, Colombia, Mexico, South Africa, France, and the Czech Republic. They have different writing styles and scientific approaches, more so than in a book written by a single author. The editor of this book ended up with this particular group of scholars thanks to the very good personal relations established during his doctoral studies. However, the scope of all the contributors is identical, though, as mentioned above, some of them are also interested in other topics, such as agriculture, medicine, history and arts. The sections of the book are quite accurately organized geographically, but there is an obvious focus on the American continent, especially South America. The remaining continents Europe, Africa, and Asia are only introduced by one primary contribution, because it was never the editor's intention to provide a global guide of ethnobotany. We are rather determined to publish the first book on ethnobotany and phytotherapy in the Czech Republic.

Keywords: ethnobotany, phytotherapy

PETRŽELOVÁ I. et al.: Genetic Resources of Vegetable and Special Crops. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2014, Vol. VII, No. 5. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-986-5

Research and utilization of plant genetic resources has a long tradition in the Czech Republic. Since 1993, work on genetic resources is managed within The National Programme on Conservation and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources and Agro-biodiversity funded by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. At the workplace of the Crop Research Institute in Olomouc, broad collections of genetic resources of vegetables, medicinal, aromatic and culinary plants (MAPs) are kept. Collection of genetic resources of the genus Brassica includes 364 accessions of 6 species (B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. juncea, B. napus, B. rapa, B. perviridis). Collection of genetic resources of bulb vegetables includes together 6 species represented by totally 816 genotypes, but the greatest part of the collection is represented by the set of garlic (Allium sativum L.) genotypes with 634 accessions. In the collection of genetic resources of leafy vegetables altogether 10 species are currently represented: cichory (Cichorium intybus and Cichorium endivia), artichoke (Cynara scolymus), and crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium) from Asteraceae family, New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonoides) from Aizoaceae family, asparagus (Asparagus offi cinalis) from Asparagaceae family, rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) from Polygonaceae family, rocket salad (Eruca sativa) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) from Brassicaceae family, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) from Chenopodiaceae family; the largest is the collection of the genus Lactuca L. from Asteraceae family. The collection of genetic resources of garden legumes includes 988 accessions of the genus Pisum (mostly of garden pea) and 914 accessions of the genus Phaseolus. The collection of MAPs includes 956 accessions of 73 genera that are registered in EVIGEZ (119 accessions are propagated vegetatively and 837 accessions generatively) and another 1246 accessions are maintained in a working collection. Each chapter presents information about specific group of crops, their taxonomy, botanical characteristics, ecogeography, phenology, and structure of the collection, as well as regeneration, characterization and evaluation of the maintained accessions. The health problems of the most important species of MAPs are described.

Keywords: conservation, controlled pollination, genetic resources, characterization and evaluation, MAPs, regeneration, technical isolation, vegetables

SAPÁKOVÁ E. et al.: Nutrition, Pests and Pathogens of Sugar Beet, Part I. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2014, Vol. VII, No. 4. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-986-5

This monograph summarizes current knowledge about organic and industrial fertilizers, pests of the order beetles and viral and bacterial pathogens of sugar beet. In addition to the weather condition, soil, crop rotation, cultivation and breeding of fertilization, fertilizers are the main factor determining the yield of sugar beet. The major nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium for sugar beet. Until now, harmful effects of 72 species of beetles from 11 families have been found out on sugar beet in our country. The protection of sugar beet is needed against the key pests such as Atomaria linearis, Chaetocnema concinna and 12 kinds of Elateridae. Sugar beet is also vulnerable to viral pathogens such as BYV, BMYV and BNYVV and bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae.

Keywords: fertilization, digestate, Coleoptera, bionomics, virus, bacteria, transmisson

HORKÝ P. et al.: The Influence of Trace Elements on the Quality of Ejaculate and Anti-oxidant Potential of Boar Semen. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2014, Vol. VII, No. 3. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-986-5

The aim of this study was to investigate factors of mineral nutrition influencing semen quality in boars. Current studies include two experiments that evaluate the impact of added minerals (chromium and selenium) on the semen quality produced in breeding boars. Also evaluated was the chromium effect on the surface glucose and insulin in the animal blood and selenium effect on antioxidant status of boar semen. On the contrary, the animals to which was added chromium at a dose of 181.8 mg Cr/kg in feed mixture showed significantly lower (P < 0.01) total number of produced sperm. Furthermore, this amount of chromium addition significantly decreased glucose concentration (P < 0.01). The selenium addition at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg of feed mixture in inorganic form significantly reduced the total number of sperm produced (P < 0.01) as well as sperm concentration (P < 0.01). In breeding boars, whose dose was increased by 0.6 mg selenium/kg of feed mixture in inorganic form, the semen volume (P < 0.01) was significantly higher – measured at the end of the experiment. Significantly higher production of free radicals (P < 0.001) was observed in the treated animals with the addition of 0.3 mg Se/kg feed mixture (inorganic form) at the end of the experimental observation. In the boar group which was administered selenium at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg of feed mixture (organic form) at the last stage of observation increased significantly glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.001) and selenium concentration (P < 0.05) in the ejaculate. The dosage of selenium in organic and inorganic form at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg of feed mixture can be recommended on the basis of performed experiments. On the contrary, feeding organic chromium in the diet cannot be recommended for breeding boars

Keywords: selenium, chromium, semen quality, antioxidant status, boars

SAPÁKOVÁ E. et al.: Garlic Pests and Their Influence on Yield in Regional Agricultural Areas. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2014, Vol. VII, No. 2. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-986-5

Garlic pests have been observed on the following five study plots – Nedakonice (178 m s. l., south Moravia), Olomouc (241 m s. l., central Moravia), Dolní Němčí (256 m s. l., south Moravia), Suchá Loz (306 m s. l., south Moravia) and Vápenky (484 m s. l., south Moravia) from 2010 to 2012. The occurrence of pests in the experiment years has been found out on winter varieties Dukát and Blanin using various monitoring methods during the vegetation. Two pest species have been found in greater abundance, the most important pest was onion maggot (Delia antiqua Meigen, 1826) occurring in all study plots in all years of the experiment. Onion maggot has caused significantly greater infestation on the edge study plot (32.3 larvae/garlic bulb) than in their center (16.3 larvae/garlic bulb). For the first occurrence of garlic fly (Suillia univittata von Roser, 1840), the afternoon temperature does not play such a significant role but mainly the temperature at night, which may not be less than 1 °C, for at least three consecutive days. The yield in all five agricultural regions was influenced by the infestation of pests. The highest yield was achieved on study plot Vápenky (120 kg per 200 m2) in 2010.

Keywords: garlic, garlic fly, onion maggot, yield, infestation, temperature

JANDÁK, J., Pospíšilová, Ľ., Hybler, V., Vlček, V.: Influence of soil conditioners on soil physical and chemical properties. Folia univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2014, Vol. VII, No. 1. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7375-986-5

The study deals with the soil quality after Soil conditioners application. Soil conditioners effect (agrisorb, zeolite, lignite) was studied in Arenic Regosol (locality Ratíškovice, region Hodonín) during the period 2008--2012. Soil conditioners consist mainly of natural humic substances, inorganic or organic substances and are supposed to influence soil hydrophysical and chemical properties. The main attention was paid to water retention, porosity, structure and aggregability. Furthermore we evaluated soil organic matter content and humic substances quality. Results showed no statistically significant effect on to hydrophysical soil properties. No differences were also found in porosity, soil moisture and humus content. Statistically significant differences were found in exchangeable soil reaction. The soil condition mainly effected humic substances quality. It was also found out that there is a tendency of increasing humus content after lignite application and increasing of aggregability after zeolit application.

Keywords: soil conditioners; hydrophysical and chemical soil properties