Folia Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis
Archiv 2015: Volume VIII
BURGOVÁ, J. et al.: Influence of choosen factors on quality of nursery production. Folia univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2015, Vol. VIII, No. 1. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7509-229-8
Rostliny pěstované v kontejnerech jsou neustále vystaveny působení četných stresových faktorů. Velkou výhodou kontejnerové produkce ve srovnání s produkcí rostlin ve volné půdě je neporušený a funkční kořenový systém. Je potřebné pochopit faktory ovlivňující růst rostlin rostoucích v kontejnerech za účelem dosažení kvalitního výsadbového materiálu. Při zvolení správné pěstební technologie by měly kontejnerové rostliny splňovat kvalitativní požadavky jako je: vyrovnaný a silný růst, neporušený kořenový systém, prokořeněný, soudržný bal a habitus odpovídající charakteristice druhu či kultivaru. Úspěšná produkce rostlin pěstovaných v kontejnerech je vedle optimalizace klimatických faktorů do značné míry závislá na kvalitě pěstebního substrátu. Většina kontejnerové produkce se pěstuje v umělých substrátech složených z komponentů s různými fyzikálními, chemickými a biologickými vlastnostmi. Jejich mísením v rozdílných poměrech je možné ovlivnit celkové vlastnosti pěstebního substrátu, jako například propustnost, vododržnost, stabilitu. Výběrem vhodných komponentů je možné snižovat četnost některých pěstebních zásahů, které ovlivňují nejen samotný vývoj a růst pěstovaných dřevin, ale rovněž náklady spojené s těmito pěstebními zásahy, například náklady na zavlažování a přihnojování. K tomuto účelu byly v tomto pokusu probíhajícím v letech 2008–2010 zvoleny tři půdní pomocné látky (Hydrogel, TerraCottem a Agrosil LR) za předpokladu jejich pozitivního ovlivnění vybraných fyziologických (průduchové vodivosti, fluorescence chlorofylu, obsahu chlorofylu v listech) a morfologických parametrů (výšky rostlin, počtu výhonů, průměru kořenového krčku, sušině nadzemní a kořenové části rostlin, prokořenění balu) modelových rostlin Viburnum opulus L., a to nejen v standardních pěstebních podmínkách, ale rovněž v podmínkách za snížené závlahové dávky. Na základě naměřených výsledků je možné konstatovat, že přídavek půdních pomocných látek za daných podmínek obecně neměl statisticky průkazně pozitivní vliv na sledované parametry. Na vlastnosti rašelino-kůrového substrátu RKS II měl přídavek půdních pomocných látek pozitivní účinek ve smyslu zvyšování koncentrace a zadržování živin v pěstebním substrátu, zvyšování objemové vlhkosti a snižování teploty substrátu, jak ve vyšším, tak i při sníženém závlahovém režimu.
Keywords: půdní pomocné látky, kontejnerová produkce, fyziologické parametry, morfologické parametry, abiotické faktory, vodní stres, závlahový režim
POSPÍŠILOVÁ, Ľ. et al.: Chemical, biological and physical parameters of soil quality/health. Folia univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2015, Vol. VIII, No. 2. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7509-244-1.
Monograph is considering analytical methods, the simple instrumental, and non-instrumental (visual) methods for soil quality assessment. Also the practical key and point scales for laboratory and field evaluation of soil properties are given. FAO „VSA“ (Visual Soil Assesment) methods, JRC (Join Research Centre) methods, and Czech standard methods according to Zbíral et al. (1997), and Jandák et al. (2007 a 2009) were used. Chemical, biological, and physical soil parameters represented by – soil colloidal complex, amount and quality of soil organic matter, microbial activity and biomass, texture, structure, aggregates stability, porosity, density and bulk density, hydro physical properties, pedocompaction, and erosion are supposed to be very important indicators of soil quality/health.
Keywords:chemical, biological and physical parameters
KREMLÁČKOVÁ, Š. et al.: Testing of the bioactive preparations Lignohumat B and Synergin® in organic strawberry production. Folia univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2015, Vol. VIII, No. 3. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7509-253-3.
The aim of the thesis was to prove the effect of Lignohumate B and Synergin® bio-stimulators and their combined effect on the cultivation of strawberries in simulated organic production. The preparations were expected to influence growth, health, yield and quality of the fruit. Their effect was evaluated through analysis of chlorophyll content in the leaves, intensity of stoma conductivity, leaf area size, and generation of runners and daughter plants. The quantity and quality of fruit production were studied as well (content of vitamin C, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, refractometric dry solids and total dry solids content). ‘Honeoye’ and ‘Symphony’ varieties were selected for the proving also in order to test their suitability for this type of cultivation in the specific conditions of the Czech Republic. Experiments were set up and assessed on experimental plots at the Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice, taking place between 2007 and 2009. The testing material consisted of frigo seedlings of early variety ‘Honeoye’ and late variety ‘Symphony’ provided by Berryservis, s.r.o. corporation (originating from Netherlands, by Goossens Flevoplant B.V.) The seedlings came from a conventional production; there was no producer of certified organic plants at the time of the experiment setup. No statistic proving of positive effect of the tested preparations – Synergin®, Lignohumate B and their combined application was found in terms of growth characteristics, yield and qualitative parameters of strawberries. The results suggest that application of Synergin® (protein hydrolysate) and Lignohumate B (lignosulphonate) on strawberries is not justified. The most important variety for setting up organic strawberry plantations is the one that is resistant to more diseases and has a high yield potential at the same time. These requirements were met only by the ‘Symphony’ variety.
Keywords:Strawberry; organic production; humic acids; protein hydrolysate; yield; chemical analysis fruit
BURG, P. et al.: Usage of waste products from growing and wine production for enegergy purposes. Folia univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2015, Vol. VIII, No. 4. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7509-333-2.
The study deals with the issue of a comprehensive acquisition and processing of waste cuttings and pomace from vineyards to use them for energy purposes. A set of concentric data for the period of 2009–2014 is used for the preparation and implementation of technologies for heating of buildings, especially in growing subjects with the regular production of such waste. The results are yet another contribution to the problems of finding alternative energy sources. The results of the experimental measurements show, that yield of fresh vine cuttings is in the range of 1.6 to 2.5 t.ha-1. According to calculations in the Czech Republic is produced during the regular winter cut 20 000 to 31 000 t of waste cuttings. When considering the calorific value of 14 GJ.t-1, the amount represents the available energy potential of 280 000–434 000 GJ. Additional material in the form of wood waste can be accounted for the continuous renewal of vegetation, which usually precedes the disposal of old vines. On the basis of calculations it can be assumed that in the Czech Republic around 3 900–10 800 tons of wood waste is established annually by the continuous renewal of vineyards, which makes 54 600–151 200 GJ.year-1. Cuttings from vines grape cane are necessary to prepare properly for the actual burning. From this perspective, it is necessary to adapt wood substance to the desired length. In the case of chipping - the processing of wood on wood chips using the working mechanism - chippers differ in constructions. Advantage of chips is the faster drying rate and they allow automatic operation of internal combustion boilers equipped with tanks and metering conveyors. Woodchips represent the powdery material characterized by mechanical and physical parameters, most important of which are grain, particle size, density and consistency. For subsequent utilization of wood chips is vital moisture content and calorific value. Results obtained when chipping cuttings from six grape varieties on a mobile chipper PEZZOLATO 110 Mb confirm the influence of varietal characteristics on its performance. The highest performance was achieved when chipping cuttings varieties Sauvignon and St. Laurent, the process was smooth with good filling feed of the throat of the machine. Both of these varieties also possess high bulk density (660 kg.m-3, 470 kg.m-3). An important indicator of energy intensity in the production of wood chips, is the specific fuel consumption. The lowest values of specific consumption were measured during chipping cuttings of the varieties St. Laurent (4,52.10-3 l.kg-1) and Blue Portugal 5,33.10-3 l.kg-1), the highest of varieties Riesling (7,71.10-3 l.kg-1), and Veltliner 8,12.10-3 l.kg-1). Granulometric analysis showed medium length of particles of tough wood varieties Müller Thurgau, Blue Portugal, Riesling from 8.58 to 9.24 millimeters, while chips from vines with varieties of hardwood (St. Laurent and Sauvignon) had a mean particle length of 4,32 to 4,40 mm. Although the character of vines is also affected by growing system and agro technical measures such as conduction type, type of cutting and execution of works or manuring, it appears that main characteristics of varietal vines are mainly hardness and toughness of wood. These condition performance and specific consumption of wood chipper and the size of the resulting chips. Machine performance is also influenced by the length and diameters of the treated cuttings The obtained results of calorific evaluation indicate, that one of the main factors that affects it, is moisture. Its maximum calorific value should be around 10–15%. The highest calorific values were determined in the variety Lemberger (16,66 MJ.kg-1), Blue Portugal 16,64 MJ.kg-1) and Moravian Muscat (16,39 MJ.kg-1). For collected samples of these varieties were determined the lowest values of all water 13,50%, 12,71% and 4,59% respectively. Conversely, the lowest calorific value were found in shoot varieties St. Laurent (15,93 MJ.kg-1) and Riesling (16,10 MJ.kg-1) containing all water 49,09% and 41,97% . In a production test, carried out in 2013 containing pelletizing line MGL 400, were pelleted three kinds of material - hay (mixture of wheat straw), crushed vines and pine sawdust. Produced pellets were evaluated by bulk density, mechanical resistance and the heating value. The values for the bulk density measured samples ranged from 452 to 632 kg.m-3. The lowest values were measured in pellets from hay - straw, this is due to the nature of the material used. The value of the bulk density of the pellets from sawdust are comparable to those found in pellets of crushed cuttings. For pellets of spruce sawdust value was calculated by mechanical abrasion 95,51%, for pellets from cuttings from 95,62 to 98,41% and for pellets from a mixture of hay and straw 94,79%. According to the CSN EN 15210 - Solid biofuels - Determination of mechanical durability of pellets and briquettes. For pellets is permissible mechanical resistance at 96,5%. The comparison shows that this standard would satisfy only a sample made from cuttings. The results show that the pellets of cuttings are compared with pellets of other materials smallest calorific value which reaches 17,5 GJ.t-1. A statistically significant difference in the calorific value is not the case of pellets from spruce and shoot, but difference is shown at pellets from hay, where the average calorific value is 19,99 GJ.t-1. Results of monitoring the performance of different kits for collecting cuttings (with a basket crusher, crusher with exhaust neck and baler) show range between 0,5–0,7 ha.h-1. These data are useful in the design of variants of employed technologies and give a fair idea about the performance achieved in terms of viticulture regions of Moravia. Observation also indicated the suitability of the described kits for various conditions and provide data useful for economic analysis of technological processes for the generation of chip cuttings for energy purposes. For each variant costs in values from 760 to 1 085 CZK per ton of energy chips and 1 030–1 460 CZK per ton shoot compressed into bales were determined. The results confirm that authentication technologies provide a competitive bioenergy products. An analysis of the results of efficiency machine sets to enable the collection and processing of vines, following the recommendations of these technologies possible for wine-growing businesses with greater than 30 to 40 hectares. The analyses and the resulting values of economic return on investment for technology showed a real clear view of practical usability of solved proposals. Even with fluctuations in yield per hectare of vines or lower heating value of wood chips, obtained values indicate that the use of technology within their own viticultural operations are economically viable and payback period for the acquisition of the necessary technical and technological equipment is 2–8 years. When selling chip cuttings from other entities (e.g. CHP plants) the effects are formed by the difference in the cost of obtaining 1 GJ of heat and revenues for the 1 GJ in the form of chips sold. At the calorific value of 14 GJ.t-1 and the estimated purchase price of woodchips 1 200 CZK per ton can be determined for instance. Return of the investing into crusher with a basket can be determined in the range of 9–20 years. Pomace represents an interesting energy source with a calorific value between 16,07–18,97 MJ.kg-1. Lower calorific value were determined in the pomace after separation of the seeds 14,60–17,75 MJ.kg-1 whereas highest calorific values were determined in the seeds themselves 19,78–21,13 MJ.kg-1. In practice, pomace may be considered for energy recovery as originally constituted pomace or without seeds, which represent a common waste material, which is generated annually in the processing of grapes. Cluster analysis results indicate that the lower calorific value of the pomace for grape varieties Riesling, Pinot Blanc and Pinot Gris. When panning the use of grape pomace for energy purposes is also needed to resolve range of the other problems associated with concentration of plantations, deployment of processing facilities, logistical problems and storage capacity, humidity and pomace processing, etc. The results of the energy balance of processed grape pomace in the Czech Republic shows that it can be annually gained 6,4 GWh.year-1 of electric and 28 GWh.year-1 of thermal energy. Summarized significance of the obtained results in the use of vines and grape pomace for energy purposes is expressed in securing renewable energy sources and enhance energy self-sufficiency in the viticultural regions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, maintaining cultural landscapes, higher utilization of waste biomass and last, but not least also in creating new job opportunities and stabilization of rural areas .
Keywords: viticulture, bioenergetics, grape cane, grape pomace, calorific value, heating crusher with a basket, presses for coiling vines, economic efficiency
KUBÍČKOVÁ, L. et al.: Internationalization process of Czech small and medium-sized enterprises.. Folia univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 2015, Vol. VIII, No. 5. ISSN 1803-2109; ISBN 978-80-7509-332-5
The aim of this book is to determine the specifics of the internationalization process of Czech small and medium-sized enterprises (abbreviated to SMEs). In order to fulfi ll the aim it was necessary to obtain primary data from Czech SMEs. Therefore several surveys among Czech SMEs from various sectors were performed between 2010 and 2012. The specifi cs of the internationalization process of Czech SMEs are defi ned on the basis of primary data analysis and their processing. First of all, the motives that lead Czech SMEs to get involved in the internationalization process are determined. Then the main barriers that hinder the firms foreign market entry are defi ned and also the factors that predetermine the success of SMEs in foreign markets. Moreover, the book also focuses on the risks connected with internationalization by identifying the key risks in internationalization process of Czech SMEs.
Keywords:small and medium sized enterprises, internationalization process, motives, barriers, risks